General Road Terms


It is a standard that includes the rules of transportation of flammable, explosive and chemical substances by road. The law on becoming a member of the ADR convention was enacted in the Turkish Grand National Assembly on November 30, 2005. The law entered into force on January 1,

Class 1 Explosive substances and objects

Class 2 Gases

Class 3 Flammable liquids

Class 4.1 Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid explosives with reduced sensitivity

Class 4.2 Substances prone to spontaneous combustion

Class 4.3 Substances releasing flammable gases in contact with water

Class 5.1 Oxidizing substances

Class 5.2 Organic peroxides

Class 6.1 Toxic substances

Class 6.2 Infectious substances

Class 7 Radioactive materials

Class 8 Corrosive substances

Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles


Vehicle Monitoring System. It is a system where vehicles are tracked via satellite using GPS and GPRS technologies.


A place where goods are kept under the supervision and control of the customs administration with the declaration given to the customs administration, which is authorized to be opened in accordance with the provisions of the Law

Transfer Center

They are regional processing centers where incoming cargo is unloaded, outgoing cargo is loaded according to the destination, cargo is stored for short periods of time during the day, and cargo transfers between vehicles are made.


A tool kit containing hand tools (hammer, screwdriver, etc.) and a flashlight for minor repairs.


It is the compartment above the driver’s cab in the truck chassis, where trucks stack their goods such as tarpaulins, etc., and which allows the height of the load they will receive to be easily expressed.

Press Tonnage

It is also referred to as gross tonnage. It refers to the vehicle’s payload (maximum load).

Fifth Wheel

It is a part on the chassis of tractor trailers, mounted on the neck of the vehicle and designed to securely lock the fastener called king pin of semi-trailers into it.


It is a road transport document. CMR Certificate is a transport document issued in accordance with the International CMR Agreement for transportation by truck.


It is a motor land vehicle with at least two axles used for towing semi-trailers.

Permanent Vehicle

It is a spot vehicle that makes continuous transportation.


The empty weight of the transport container.

Damper Case

Thanks to its hydraulic equipment special for trucks, it is a type of crate that can be inclined 45 degrees in order to unload the bulk cargo inside the crate.

Tipper Semi Trailer

It is a 45-degree inclined body system that works with hydraulic equipment and unloads the load on itself. Unlike trucks, there are also tipper semi-trailers that can demolish the material on it to the right or left.


It is a place suitable for indoor or outdoor storage of nationalized goods.


The metal part on which the wheels turn. Those with a single tire on it are referred to as single axles, while those with two wheels are referred to as double axles.

Bulk Cargo

Cargo not contained in any packaging, e.g. coal, iron powder, etc.


Equivalent to 40 feet. It is the unit of measurement used to indicate the capacity of containers. 1 FEU is 40 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) × 9 ft (height) or in metric terms 12.192 m (length) × 2.44 m (width) × 2.59 m (height) and has a volume of approximately 67.5 m³.


Bonded areas inside factories.


It is a road vehicle designed and manufactured for the transportation of foodstuffs, medicines and some chemical substances sensitive to heat change, with wall thickness and insulation value varying depending on the dimensions of the sensitivity of the transported material to heat change and equipped with a cooling unit.


Measurements that determine the length, width and height of vehicles, loaded or unloaded, in order to ensure their safe travel on the highway.

Temporary Storage Location

It is the place where the goods are allowed to be temporarily stored by the customs administration until they are subjected to a customs-approved process or use after they are presented to customs.

Transition Certificate

It is a document that specifies the cargo carried between the customs of departure and the customs of arrival in international transportation and provides passage through the customs of the exit and destination countries and entry to the country where the cargo will be unloaded. Articulated lorry report cards are also included in the transit document.

Customs Enforcement Officer

It is the officer to whom the customs declarations of the goods in customs and bonded areas are delivered after the inspection officer. These officers are also authorized to seal and open sealed materials such as containers.

Intermodal Transportation

It is a mode of transport using two or more modes of transport with the same transport vehicle or container and the cargoes in the vehicle or container are not subjected to any handling during mode changes.

Occupancy Limit

The maximum load weight or the number of passengers and servants that a vehicle or vehicle can safely carry and specified in the manufacturing standard.

Jumbo Semi Trailer

It is a semi-trailer measuring 13.60m x 2.45m x 2.65m, with a gross volume of 90m3, also available in two-deck models.


It is the authorization certificate that real or legal persons who will carry intercity goods transportation by road with one or more than one self-owned vehicle must obtain from the Ministry of Transport.

Combined Transportation

It is a type of transportation that is not intermodal but is made by using more than one transportation vehicle (train, truck, etc.) connected to each other.


It is a motorized land vehicle with at least two axles, with a maximum permissible loaded weight of more than 3.5 tons, manufactured for carrying goods or cargo, with a chassis suitable for mounting equipment or chassis for different purposes. Due to their design and engine power, some trucks are suitable for towing trailers.

Truck Trailer

It is a road vehicle for freight transportation, consisting of a truck and a trailer manufactured in accordance with the characteristics of the load it will carry.

Pickup Truck

Land transport vehicles with a maximum permissible loaded weight not exceeding 3.5 tons and manufactured for the carriage of goods or cargo and having a safe according to the type of cargo to be carried.


It is the measuring device where the vehicles that will receive cargo stop to be weighed after they are empty and loaded.

Closed Safe Box

A class of semi-trailer with closed sides and roof, which can only be loaded by opening the rear hatch.

Sliding Curtain Semi Trailer

A semi-trailer whose side surfaces and roof are covered by a curtain system and can be loaded from both the side and the top of the body by opening the curtains.

Fishbone Semi Trailer (Container chassis semi-trailer)

It is a semi-trailer vehicle with at least one axle, designed and manufactured for the purpose of container transportation, with a skeletal chassis and a container lock (twist lock) placed at the end of the transverse crosses at a number and distance suitable for the type of container it will carry.

King Pin

It is a part made of forged steel that connects the fifth wheel of the semi-trailer tractor. It is manufactured in different sizes in line with the carrying capacity of the semi-trailer.

Rental Vehicle

These are vehicles that are rented with a complete driver by contract and operate with a certain monthly rent and a percentage of fuel per km.


A fee charged to the driver of a vehicle who agrees to take a load, partly as a side income and partly to prevent the driver from taking the load.


A person who finds a suitable vehicle for the load and receives a commission from the vehicle owner.

Commission Invoice

Invoice issued in return for commission received.

Bill of Lading

It is a cargo transportation document that contains information about the content of the cargo being transported.


They are standard metal cargo crates that are resistant to all kinds of atmospheric conditions, especially used in intermodal transportation, easy to handle and stackable. The most common types are 20\’s, 40\’s and 45\’s. This classification is made according to the varying length of the containers.

Container Lock

It is the mechanism that vehicles lifting or transporting containers have to fix the containers at the corners.

L2 Certificate

It is a type of authorization certificate that companies engaged in international logistics operations must have in accordance with the Road Transport Law. Unless the violations specified in the provisions of the law are committed, the validity period of the certificate is 5 years.


It is a semi-trailer that enables the transportation of loads that are different from the length, height, width and tonnage that normal trucks or trucks can carry, such as heavy construction machinery or special project loads, which are outside the standards according to international and domestic road transport regulations.

Mega Semi Trailer

13.60 m x 2.50 m x 3.00 m semi-trailers with a volume of 102 m³.

Vocational Qualification Certificate

It is the certificate received by those who are engaged in the activities within the scope of the Highways Regulation, who have received the vocational qualification training stipulated in this regulation and/or who are successful in the exams to be held.


A person engaged in transportation.


The transportation cost excluding VAT.

Delivery Order

It is the order given for the customs clearance of goods coming from abroad against the bill of lading.

Special Authorization Certificate

It is a document issued to foreign-registered vehicles to replace the transit document and to carry Turkish export products without requiring a transit document for transportation.

Special Freight Transportation Certificate

It is obligatory to obtain a Special Cargo Transportation Permit Certificate from the General Directorate of Highways (Relevant Regional Directorates) in accordance with Articles 33 of the Highway Traffic Law, 66 and 128 of the Highway Traffic Regulation in order to be able to transport loads that are special in terms of weight and dimensions and cannot be transported by other transportation systems and that exceed the transportation limit and must be transported according to the principles in this permit.


It is a platform used in storage and shipment, made of various materials and on which the goods are placed.

Loading Compass / Loading Offer

The document that documents the agreement of the vehicle that receives work from the KN Office with the office staff, the commission paid and proves that it has come to the company where it will receive its cargo for loading.

Part Load

Partial loads, which are not in the form of bulk cargo such as wheat, coal, etc. and cannot be placed in containers, can also be defined as general cargo and can be in different package types.

Partial Distribution

It is the general name for the use of the transportation capacity of the vehicle by allocating it to more than one customer or the orders of the customers that need to go to more than one point.

Psychotechnical Test

The purpose of psycho-technical assessment is to measure and evaluate the level of mental and psychomotor abilities of drivers that enable them to drive safely by using objective methods. It consists of the evaluation of driving skills, driving attitudes towards traffic and personality in terms of traffic psychology. The validity period of the certificate is 5 years.

R2 Certificate

It is a type of authorization certificate required to be held by companies that are organizers of international transportation works in accordance with the Highway Transport Law. The validity period of the certificate is 5 years unless the violations specified in the provisions of the law are carried out


This field is used to facilitate the process of taking the material into or out of the warehouse.


A system in which a vehicle picks up the same or different loads from various points within the framework of a program and delivers them to one or more points and collects empty containers during deliveries or collects and returns empty containers by following the reverse route after all deliveries are completed

Roll Carrier Semi Trailer

It is a semi-trailer manufactured to carry loads of similar shape and size, especially rolled hair. A round cylindrical cavity in the base, which is opened on the axis of the length of the vehicle, ensures that the load is supported on both sides when loaded on the vehicle so that the measures to be taken to fix the load on the vehicle can be done more simply.

Platform Semi Trailer

It is a semi-trailer with a flat floor and no side covers. It is used for the transportation of materials such as pipes, iron, containers, etc. Its dimensions can vary according to container dimensions.

Shipment Waybill

An official document indicating the name, quantity, freight cost and invoice number of the cargo on the vehicle. It is a document that must be issued during the transportation of commercial goods from one place to another and must be kept with the goods in order to be controlled in terms of tax legislation during the transportation of goods.


The monetary value of the damaged goods as assessed by the insurance expert.

Contract Vehicle

These are the vehicles belonging to someone else that the holder of the authorization certificate will operate under its own title and responsibility based on a notarized transportation revenue sharing or lease agreement. They operate per trip or Ytl / ton. Contracted vehicles working for a fixed monthly fee are complete rental vehicles.

Ratchet Strap

It is the general name of polyester strips which are fixed to the surface where the load will be transported by passing over the load and used to fix the load by stretching it with the tension mechanism known as \”purse strings\”.

Spot Vehicle

Free-running is the general name for vehicles with a one-time transportation agreement.


It is a method generally used in land and sea transportation, where the customs clearance of the material is carried out on the vehicle carrying out the transportation.


A person who drives and manages a motor vehicle or vehicle on the highway

Urban Transportation

Transportation within the boundaries of the municipality and its adjacent area.

Swap Body

Swap body is the name given to containers that are so thin that they cannot be stacked on top of each other and lifted from the top by a stacker. They are made of very lightweight materials to reduce initial purchase costs and minimize fuel costs in the long term. Their dimensions are standard ISO container dimensions so that they can be loaded onto other container-carrying vehicles. Thanks to the foldable legs, which are usually located at the four corners, it can change the vehicle it is transported without the need for any loading/unloading system.

Full Trailer

It is a vehicle towed by a truck and designed and manufactured according to the characteristics of the load it will carry, with at least one axle and connected to the truck it is towed by a connection apparatus defined as towing arrow, turntable, hook, etc.


A legal entity that carries out a specific transportation business on behalf of another company with vehicles owned or otherwise connected to it as a result of a contract.

Transportation Waybill

It is the document issued by those engaged in transportation activities in accordance with the provisions of the relevant legislation for the goods or cargo carried in the same vehicle at the same time, belonging to one or more consignees and consignors, which they undertake to carry.

Vehicle Certificate

It refers to the document issued as an annex to the authorization certificate, separate from the authorization certificate, which shows the quality and number of vehicles to be used by the authorization certificate holder in a list.

Vehicle Card

Indicating that a vehicle is only registered in the vehicle document attached to an authorization certificate and can only be operated under this document;

– the trade name of the holder of the authorization certificate,

– the type and number of the authorization certificate,

– the validity period of the vehicle card,

– the make, type, model, license plate and color of the vehicle.

Vehicle Scale

A vehicle consisting of at least one towing vehicle and at most two towed trailers coupled together to travel as a unit on the highway.

Semi-trailer with awning

A type of semi-trailer whose side surfaces are covered by a partially openable awning system.


Unit equivalent to 20 feet. A unit of measurement used to indicate the capacity of containers. 1 TEU is 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) × 9 ft (height) or in metric terms 6.10 m (length) × 2.44 m (width) × 2.59 m (height) and has a volume of about 38.5 m³. A 40′ container is also expressed as 2 TEU. However, 45 containers are also dimensioned as 2 TEU.

Articulated Lorry

It stands for Transports Internationaux Routiers in French. It is an agreement signed by the International Transport Union (IRU) under the United Nations Organization in Geneva on 15 January 1959. This agreement is a convention signed between 11 countries (Austria, Sweden, Portugal, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, France, Malta, Switzerland, Tunisia and Yugoslavia) allowing combined transport (road, rail, air, waterways) and the use of containers (1994).

In practice, road vehicles of the countries included in this agreement carry an articulated lorry report card indicating the type, quantity and nature of the customs-bonded goods loaded on the vehicle and articulated lorry plates to be attached to certain parts of the vehicle. The customs control of the goods specified in the articulated lorry report card and loaded in the vehicle is carried out in the country of origin, and only external controls – except in suspicious cases – are sufficient in the customs of the countries on the route until the destination. In our country, transportation vehicles consisting of semi-trailers and tow trucks are called articulated lorry.

Articulated Lorry Report Card

It is a Report Card used within the Articulated Lorry contract system and printed by IRU (International Road Transport Union) and made available to member countries.

Public Transportation Waybill

The waybill prepared by the vehicle owner by writing down the destinations/customers and the corresponding goods prepared for the distribution of one or more goods with multiple points/customers, with multiple points/customers, is called a bulk transportation waybill.

Transit Transportation

It refers to the transportation of passengers or goods that starts in any country and ends in another country after passing through the territory of at least one country, including transportation through countries other than the countries of commencement and termination.


It is the creation of an integrated transportation system in which transportation is carried out in an economically and technically efficient and fast way with fleets that are safer and compatible with environmental standards by including the social dimensions of international transportation.

It is an international organization established in 1953 by 17 countries including Turkey as a founding country and today it has about 50 member countries. The activities in our country are carried out by the Ministry of Transport and the laws, legislation and practices related to standardization are carried out by this institution.

Fee Schedule

It refers to the document that regulates transportation activities in terms of wages in regular transportation and must be complied with.

Authorization Certificate

It is a document issued by the Ministry that gives permission to work to real and legal persons who will operate within the scope of the road transport regulation.

Domestic Transportation

Transportation starting from any point of any province and ending at any point of another province or between two points within the borders of a province regardless of the distance.

Semi Trailer

It is a road vehicle with at least one axle, which is towed by a towing vehicle with an engine and designed and manufactured in a way specific to the characteristics of the load it will carry, and connected to the vehicle it is towed by means of a connection system called king pin.

What is Ladameter – How is it calculated?

Ladameter, also known as lademeter, is a method that calculates the kilogram of volume according to the area occupied by loads that are not likely to be loaded on top of each other in road transport. There is no clear formula for calculating it, nor is it a method with precise rules. It is not a mathematical or engineering calculation method. It is a calculation made according to some specified rules and the wishes of the transportation company are taken into consideration. At the same time, this calculation method varies according to the vehicle on which the load is loaded and represents the space occupied by the load in the trailer. The concept we call trailer is vehicles such as trucks, vans and containers that vary in size.

We can answer the question of how the ladameter calculation is made as follows; The tonnage calculation for the loads that cannot be loaded on top of each other in the vehicle to be transported is made with ladameter. Regardless of the size of the load, the calculation is made with the formula “1-meter length = 1 Ladameter = 1,750 kg” as the place it occupies in the length of the transport vehicle. The result of this calculation is compared with the actual weight of the load. Whichever result is greater, that result is accepted for the weight to be used in the calculation.

For example; a truck is considered to be 13.6 ladameters. When 13.6 ladameters = 24,000 kg = 9 cubic meters, 1 ladameter is 1,750 kg, 6.5 cubic meters.

What is Cubic Meter – How to Calculate?

Cubic meter is the word that means volumetric weight in cargo operations. It is a term used especially in transportation. To calculate the cubic meters of the parcel to be sent by cargo, the width, length and height are multiplied by each other and divided by 1,000,000. This unit of measurement is used by cargo companies to calculate the shipping cost of the product. In transportation, along with the weight of the transported cargo, the volume, that is, the area it occupies, is also important.


80 cm x 50 cm x 50 = 200.000

200.000 /1.000.000 = 0,2 m³

Kg? m³?

A kilogram is a unit of weight of 1000 grams, abbreviated as kg, agreed upon and accepted by international agreement. It is the unit of mass used today and is a thousand times the gram. These units of measurement used in cargo shipments are used in the fee calculation. The shipment is weighed and the kg weight is found. Then the volume of the shipment, that is, the cubic meter (m³) is calculated. Especially during the shipment of large-sized products, cargo companies can take into account the cubic meter (m³) instead of the weight of the parcel. The reason for this is that the product to be sent, even if its weight is not much, takes up a lot of space in volume, affecting the total number of parcels that can be transported. It is very important to calculate and plan the product to be shipped correctly. Incorrect calculations can lead to customer dissatisfaction. Therefore, very careful measurement should be made when calculating the cubic meter (m³), which is one of the important factors affecting the price of the product to be shipped.

Vehicle Types:

They are road transportation vehicles called tow trucks, trailers, trucks, tankers, trailers and semi-trailers and are used for domestic and international freight transportation.

Trailer is a road vehicle for cargo transportation, which is towed by a truck and manufactured according to the characteristics of the load it will carry, has at least one axle and is connected to the truck with a connection module such as towing arrow, turntable or hook

The most commonly used trailer types:

  • Semi-trailer

  • Optima trailer

  • Jumbo trailer

Canvas trailer: Since the awnings surrounding the trailer can be removed individually, it is possible to load the vehicle from any direction. It is especially suitable for loading and unloading long products and is suitable for all kinds of dry cargo transportation. (

The most commonly used types of tilt trailers:

  • Standard awning trailer

  • Sliding Curtain Canopy trailer

  • Awned trailer with roof

Semi Trailer: It is a road vehicle with at least one axle, which is towed by a towing vehicle with an engine and manufactured according to the characteristics of the load it will carry and connected to the vehicle it is towed.

The most common types of semi-trailers

  • Dump chassis semi-trailer

  • Refrigerated semi-trailer

  • Maksima semi-trailer

Tankers They are especially used in the transportation of hazardous materials, i.e. fuel, but are suitable for all kinds of liquid and gaseous cargo transportation. There is no standard size, they are usually produced according to sectoral expectations and customer orders.

Container carriers: This 20′, 30′, 40′ and long type platform for container transportation can carry 45′ containers. Axles, chassis strength and locks are very important in container transportation.

The most used types of Container carriers

  • Platform type Container carriers

  • Long platform type Container carriers

  • Fishbone type platform Container carriers

In road transport, loads are classified in three different ways:

1 – Loads according to their characteristics

1a. General Cargoes: A dry and clean shipment that does not require a special service or storage and is not classified as dangerous goods, perishable food or live animals is called “General Cargo”.

1b. Special Cargoes: The transportation of some cargoes in road transportation is special. The loading, transportation and unloading of these products on vehicles requires a number of additional features compared to other ordinary cargo transportation

Special cargoes in international road freight transportation are as follows:

  • Perishable foodstuffs

  • Dangerous substances

  • Live animals

2- Loads According to Vehicle Capacity

If the export or import cargo fills a complete vehicle, this vehicle is loaded to carry the cargo of only 1 company. If the amount of cargo is not enough to fill the vehicle, groupage, i.e. partial loading is done. If the partial load is a large volume load, it is priced according to the space it occupies in the vehicle. If the load is small in volume but heavy, it is priced according to its weight since the total load carrying capacity of the vehicle is also limited. (

  • Full truck load (full track loading – FTL)

  • Partial (groupage) loads (less than track loading – LTL)

3- Cargoes by Place of Delivery

  • Cargoes with one loading and one delivery address

  • Cargoes with more than one delivery address

L = Length
W = Width,
H = Height,
m³= Total volume (cubic meters)